Assessment will cover certain following areas like:
- Analyse the influence of culture, politics and power on the behaviour of . Waitrose
- Evaluate how to motivate individuals and teams to achieve in Waitrose
- Demonstrate an understanding of how to co-operate manage the work through Waitrose
- Give concepts and philosophies of Waitrose to a given business situation
Organisational behaviour means study of both group and individual and also the interaction between the organisation and human being. It helps to develop the better understanding of the organisation. It also helps the organisation to work in better way and also to help to achieve the goals of the organisation . Present study is base on Waitrose which is a chain of British supermarket, and one of the leading food retailer. In these report it will cover how organisation culture, politics and power influence individual and team behaviour and performance and for culture it will explain with the help of Handy model and for power it will explain with the help of five forms of power. Further it will explain the content and process theory and different type of motivation technique in terms of monetary and non- monetary in order to achieve the goals of the firm. In additional it will demonstrate the understanding of effective team in term of ineffective team and lastly it will explain the concept of OB within an organisational context.
P1 Organisation's culture politics and power can influence individual and team behaviour and performance
The organisation's culture, politics and power can influence individual and also the team behaviour and performance which is explained below -
- Culture– Organisation culture includes beliefs, style, assumption and principles of organisation members. Every company has it unique culture just like people do and also has its unique personality. These shared values have a strong influence the behaviour of the members. As several model is propose for explaining the organisation culture one of them is Charles Handy 's model in which there are four types of culture which organisation has to follow (Baker and et.al., 2016).
- Power culture – It is the first type of culture model that is power culture in which in the organisation in which the power remain in the hand of only one person that is the subordinate has to depend upon the power holder and only few people are authorized to take decision and the rest has to follow the rules and regulation. There is very strict rules that one has to follow as they don't have any option left. Also in power culture the employees do not have the liberty to share the innovative ideas or participate in the decision making thus, employees has to follow the superior and also the superior sometime take partial decision and also it enjoys the position.
- Task culture- It is the second type of Handy ' s model in which teams are formed to achieve the goals and objective of the organisation and also the team solve the problems of the organisation. In which the same interest people and like minded people are form the team so that less conflict emerge in the organisation. Basically there are four to five members in the team which contribute equally and with the right mix of skills and creative ideas can be productive for the organisation and also it gives the best result as team work in the best possible way and also proper coordination help the team to achieve the goals and also improve the efficiency of the organisation. And firm response in the positive way as each group ideally contain all the decision making power and not has to depend upon the other.
- Person culture – In these type in which the employees feel that they are more important than the organisation as they are concern with themselves and show less interest towards the organisation. In which employees does not show much interest in the firm and employees only come for the sake of the money and employees never get attach to the organisation as they concentrate in self goals rather than the organisation gaols. As not many organisations follow this type of culture because it will hinder in achieving the organisation goals.
- Role culture – It is the most effective type as the employees are delegated roles and responsibility and also Waitrose follow these type of culture as it is very transparent as each one know what to do and responsibilities are delegated on the basis of the skills, qualification and interest so that employees perform in the best way. This type of organisation is considered as one of the successful type. All employees are accountable for something as power come with responsibility.
- Power – As power is one of the important thing in the organisation as it influence the individual , team behaviour and the organisation. If the power is use in the positive manner then the organisation work in the right direction and on the other hand if the power is use in the negative way then it will hinder the growth of the organisation and the organisation work in the negative way and also it arises many conflicts in the organisation. Also, Power is explained by the help of Five Forms of power by the French & Raven.
- Coercive Power- In these type of power one is force to do something against the will and also leads to many problems as one is not willing to do the work and also does not have interest in doing. Coercive power can lead to unhealthy relationship and also employees are not satisfied with the organisation. In these type of power there are major chances of the conflict as the employees are forces to do the work.
- Reward Power – This type of power uses different type of bonus, perks, rewards, promotion, new projects and many opportunities and other monetary benefit to influence the people. It is based on the idea that society is more tending to do things when they are rewarded well. And also the subordinate get motivated when they receive bonus and reward. One loose point is that reward does not rest on the person promising it because in the organisation there is long chained of people which take decision.
- Legitimate Power- The scope of the power is of the limited period as soon as he/ she leaves that position, the power comes to the end. Rewarding and punishing employees is most common in these type of power. It is usually base on the role and one has to obey the person with power which is based on their position. In legitimate power there are strict rules and regulation by which one has to follow and also the scope of this power is of short term basis .
- Referent Power – This power means the ability to attract and influence other as the leader is often seen as role model ans also have the charm and highly like by others and also people identify strongly. Celebrities and famous personality plays the main role in this type of power as they have the ability to attract them (Bester and et.al., 2015).
- Expert Power – This is the most effective type of power and also Waitose use this type of power as it is base on the skills , expertise, information and knowledge and also every one trust their ability to fulfil several roles and also the goals of the organisations. This power helps the organisation to work in the effective way and also employees are very motivated and work with full capacity.
- Politics – Politics is one of the most important element of the organisation as when people misuse there power it will negatively impact the condition and environment of the company as people will not find good place to work in the company. As each one try to pull down and gain better advantage by doing inappropriate things. If the employees does not have the capability to work well then they play politics to grab the attention of their superior and also to became famous in the organisation and also to be in the good books of other. With the affect of politics the efficiency of the organisation decreases and also it affects the goals of the firm as employees are not having proper environment to work in. Politics hinder the growth of the organisation as the working of the organisation is not friendly and employees are not work in the team as there are many conflicts between them and also decrease the productivity of the employees as employees mind are not stable just because of the dirty politics . So politics influence the individual and the team behaviour to the large extent.
P2 Content and process theories of motivational techniques in the organisation
Content theory is one of the most important theory as it give emphasize upon what motivates people and also study the behaviour of the individual. The content theory discuss here is Maslow's hierarchy theory as it contain five stages to define the behaviour of the individual.
- Physiological Needs – In these it includes the most basic need of the individual which is most important for the survival of the individual such as need for food , water and sleep that are the primary Needs and also organisation focus this needs as without fulfilling the primary needs the employee's cannot properly function and also they do not feel healthy and work in the full capacity. Physiological need consider as the first step in internal motivation. If the needs are not fulfilled by the organisation then it will increase the displeasure and people will become more lethargic and does not show interest in working in the organisation. And also Waitrose provide these type of need to the employees so that they work in effective way with full capacity (Nichols Hess, 2015).
- Safety needs – Once the physiological needs are met then the next need arises is known as safety needs in which include security, safety and stability. And also need items that the person needs to feel safe from physical and economic harm. It needs security of roof over one's head and also safety of housing and family members. And Waitrose consider the safety need as if employees become satisfied then it will become more motivated towards the works.
- Social belonging – After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled the third level of need is social belonging in which it related to the interaction with other people and also acceptance of belongingness among social group whether it is small or big. Every individual need is to being recognise in the society it includes friendship, intimacy, trust and acceptance and also receiving and giving love (Harrigan and Commons, 2015).
- Esteem needs – It includes ego needs or status needs in which people give importance to the reputation, achievement and recognition. Most human need to felt the importance and respect in the organisation these include self respect and self esteem. Some esteem needs are achievement, attention, recognition and reputation. Esteem needs are classified into two such as internal esteem and second is external esteem. First one only include self respect but later one include social status and recognition.
- Self Actualization – This is the last need in Maslow's motivational theory in which individual seek personal growth and peak experience. In these it described that one desired to accomplish everything by which one desire for. For example individual has the desire to become top manager in the organisation and he /she fulfils their desired.
- Process theory – It is basically of system of ideas that how the organisation will change and develop. The process theory discuss here is equity theory which is base on the principle of balance or equity. In which people are to be treated equally and also receive what they are capable off. It need to understand the input which are those things which an individual does in order to receive something and output is that what the person receive . This theory is base on assumptions that are -
In which individual make contribution for which they expect certain outcomes. In which input include training, qualification etc. and output refers to the reward, recognition and promotion.
And the second one is that individual expect fair and equitable reward for their contribution as employees does not like partial behaviour (Bosse and et.al, 2017).
In these Waitrose follow process theory as it follow the principle of input and output. As input of the employees will be the education, skills, past training and development, experience and energy and in return they receive recognition, promotion, status, salary and rewards and different type of benefit (Omerzel , 2016).
The different motivational technique which are used to motivate the employees are financial motivator and non- financial motivator
- Financial motivator – Financial motivators are the motivator in which people are giving monetary help to motivate them to work in the better quality and to achieve the goals of the organisation . There are many financial techniques which are use by Waitrose to motive the employees -
- Pay and Allowances – As salary is considered as the basic motivation for which people put efforts and work hard. It also includes many allowances such as dearness allowance, travelling allowance and other. And also waitrose provide allowances to the employees so that perform better work.
- Incentives – incentive means extra wages which is given to the employee if they complete the given target at time or if the employees increases the sales of the company then different type of incentives are being provided to the employees which help the working of the employees
- Bonus- Bonus are given above the salary. Waitrose perform these type as company offer bonus at the time of Christmas and New year. So that it help to improve the working of the employees and also it increases the performance of the employees.
- Retirement benefit – Waitrose provide various retirement benefit such as provident fund, pension, gratuity which helps to motivate the employees and help them to work in full capacity.
- Perquisites – It means the additional benefit the company gives to the employees such as car allowances, medical care and housing (Manika and et.al., 2015).
- Non – financial motivator – The factor which include reward and recognition other than monetary benefits. It helps the organisation as by providing many rewards the employees feel motivated and work with fully energise form
- Status – employees get motivated by the status also as they enjoy the better status and designation and it works as the source of motivation. Waitrose promote employees to the higher position if the employees works in full capacity.
- Appreciation and Recognition – this is the second source of motivation in which employees must be appreciated for what they achieve and time to time compensated so that they perform well.
- Work life balance – the employees should be in the position to balance their work life as well as their personnel life and also a balance employees is motivated employees and this element help Waitrose for achieving the objective and goals of the company and also it will beneficial for the company if the employees work in highly motivated way.
- Working condition – It is important for the organisation to keep healthy and friendly working environment in which proper lighting and sanitation must be there so that it will help Waitrose to improve the work performance of the employee's (Ruck , 2017).
Read Also: Improving Productivity in Woolworth Limited
P3 Understanding of what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team.
It is very important to understand that what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team by the help of Tuckman model which explains that as a team develops maturity and ability, build relationship and also the leader changes the leadership style. Tuckman model has basically five stages such as Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing and Adjourning which are explained below -
Forming – In these stage there is high dependence on the leader guidance as all the subordinate are depended upon the power holders for there guidance and direction. Little agreement and issues are to be solve by the help of the leader and all the employees depend upon them. In these style individual role are unclear and also decision making process takes times. In these only leader is prepared to answer the lots of question about the team 's purpose, objectives and external relationships. In these team member are usually on their best behaviour even at the early phase. But the team member depend upon the leader for the further direction to build team in the positive way. There is polite atmosphere and also strong guidance in needed by the facilitator as groups tasks are not clearly defined yet so sometime it becomes very difficult. If the leader of Waitrose provide the best guidelines and support to the member and also there is clear structure of the responsibilities of the member then it becomes the effective team but on the other hand if there is unclear structure as member doesn't known what task to be perform and also leader doesn't provide proper guidelines and there is high dependence on power holder then it will be ineffective team by which Waitross faces many difficulties (Bowman, 2017).
Storming – This is the second stage of team development in which it is more focus on the emotional issues in which the group starts to sort itself out and gain each other' trust . In these stage conflict may arises between the team member as by the status and the power that are assigned. In these stage decision doesn't come easily it takes long process as there are many conflicts as there is clarity of work but there are many uncertainties. In these stage the team need to focus on the organisational gaols and objective without distracting by the conflicts, relationship with other members and emotional issues. As different member works as a team they learn a lot that is different style. Sometime tension, argument and frustration argument in the organisation occur. This stage can also be upsetting as dispute arises in the organisation.
If Waitrose provide positive environment and also if there is less tension and frustration among the members so that there will be less dispute in the Waitrose so that there will be effective team in the organisation but if there is more dispute between the member than team perform in the ineffective way and perform less.
Norming – This is the third stage in which roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted . In these stage the big decision are made by the proper discussion and agreement by the group . And also in these stage the small issue and decision are delegated to individual or the small group of team so that member become more responsible and feel that they are the important part of the organisation. Member's highly committed towards the work and show unity in the team. Also, there is less conflict among the member as member may engage in the fun and social activities and also the member respect the leader. These stage is very effective as in Waitrose there are less chances of conflict as team members show unity and have a good term in the organisation and the roles and clear and also goals of the organisation are easily achieved.
Performing – This is the forth stage in the organisation as the member are highly motivated and focus on over achieving the goals of the organisation and team has the shared vision and try to achieve them in every possible manner with the help of leader. Sometimes conflict may arise in the organisation but these conflict are solved in the positive way and also necessary changes and made by the team for the improvement. Members of the team are highly independent as task are delegated by the leader but the member can take help from the leader and also member look after each other and try to make a positive environment.
If the leader of the Waitrose delegate the responsibility and try to maintained the positive environment and also leader motivate the team to achieve goals than the team behave in the effective way with less dispute in the organisation on the other hand if the leader doesn't delegate the responsibility than the team perform in the ineffective way.
Adjourning – This is the fifth stage of Tuckman model in which when tasks is completed successfully and the purpose fulfilled it is important to celebrate the efforts of the team in the positive way and it important to give recognition of the individual achievement. This will motivate the employees as there work is being appreciated and also proper reward are been given to the members. This stage is known as mourning as stage is wrapping up the task and also team breaking up. If Waitrose time to time celebrate the team efforts as well as individual achievement and gave them recognition and reward then team perform in the effective way on the other hand if Waitrose doesn't celebrate then member may disappointed and work less (Khuong and Hoang, 2015).
P4 Philosophies of OB within an organisation context and business situation .
Model of Organizational behaviour- Model helps to complex things in the clear an effective manner. Model are broadly classify in four types such as autocratic, custodial, supportive and collegial.
The Autocratic Model
In these model the manager exercise the command over the employees in which the manager give order, direction and command to the employees and the subordinate must obey the order in the given manner. The subordinates are depended upon the power holders for further orders and small issue in the organisation are solved by the manager. In autocratic model decision making process may take long time as power holder decides what to do. And responsibility remain with manager only. By these the result of the performance is minimal because of highly dependence on the manager. Also, the managerial orientation is formal and it is assumed that the manager know what is best for the organisation and employee's obligation to follow orders without questions and interpretation (Morgeson, Mitchell and Liu, 2015).
The Custodial Model
These model is base on security and satisfaction of the employees oriented towards the benefit and dependence on the organization . Custodial model is originally develop in the form of employee welfare programs. Waitrose uses many benefits and security to satisfy the employees so that the subordinate feels motivated and also the custodial approach depends on economic resources as the Waitrose must have economic wealth to provide economic security , pension and other fringe benefit. By providing all the benefit to the employees there will be many advantages as there will be decrease in labour turnover of the employees and also subordinate performance will also increase (Coccia , 2015).
The Supportive Model
These model states that the employees are self motivated and also the subordinates are highly contributed to the Waitrose. In this manager actually leads his employees by setting good examples and also being involve in various tasks. In these the manager of the Waitrose creates a positive and supportive working atmosphere for the workers so that it will help the workers to work in better way to achieve the goals of the Waitrose. The employees deliver the best work to the organisation and also show the involvement and interest in Waitrose. The manager believes that given due and appropriate changes, the workers become ready to share responsibility and also improve themselves . Under supportive approach the management 's orientation is to support the employees' performance in improving the individual and organisation goals (Wong and Wong , 2017).
The Collegial Model
This is the forth model as it is the extension of supportive model. This model lies on management's building a feeling of partnership with the employees. It is the most effective method as employees feel that they are needed and useful in the organisations. Employees are considered manager as the joint contributor to Waitrose success rather than a boss. One of the advantage of the model is that the employees become self – discipline and also feel more responsible towards the work as they create a feeling of team work. In these model everybody works as colleagues. Collegial refers to a highly co- operative set of people working together for the sake of efficient working and to achieve organisational goals. These model focus on the harmony of the organisation and creates positive attitude.
Path Goal Theory
The theory is bases on the employees 's perception of expectancies between his efoorts and performance is greatly affected by the leader's behaviour. In these the leader helps the employees in attaining the goals by clarifying the paths and also helps to remove the obstacles to performance so that it help the employees to work in the better way. Basically there are four Leadership style such as -
- Direction – In these the leader provide the guideline and support to the employees and proper standards that what should be done. It helps the employees to achieve the goals as the leader provide and direct the subordinate in the proper way.
- Supportive –In these the leader is very friendly towards the employees and also display personal concern for their needs and also there is a strong relationship between the employees and the leader. The manger of the Waitrose support the employees in the best possible way . This style is same as people oriented as it gives more importance to the people in the organisation .
- Participative – In these the leader prefer to make group decision making as in this the subordinate participate in the decision making process and also share their innovative and creative ideas. It takes the opinion of the subordinate about the issue so that it help to build the strong relationship. The leader believe to work as a team and also gives importance to the subordinate (Chumg and et.al, 2016).
- Achievement oriented – In these the leader of the Waitrose sets challenging goals and also motivate and encourage the employees to improve the performance and work in the better way . The leader believes that by motivating and encouraging the employees the subordinate can achieve the challenging task in the easier way. In this the employees are highly motivated and perform in the better way. As motivation is the key for success (Bititci and et.al, 2015).
Related Sample: Aims and Objectives in Research - Waitrose Ltd.
These report is about the organisational behaviour which helps to study the individual and organisation and also the interaction between the both. Also, it analyses the influence of culture by the handy 's model, power by the help of fives forces and the influence of politics on individual and team behaviour and performance. Further it has concluded that it is important to motivate the employees and in above study it has use the content and process theory to motivate the employees. By the help of Tuckman theory it helps to know the effective team and ineffective team by the help of various stages such as forming, norming, storming, performing . And also it uses different philosophy and the model (Morgeson, Mitchell and Liu , 2015).
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