This Assessment will cover questions described below:
- Analyse different culture, politics and power context addressed in John Lewis partnership.
- Evaluate and manage the ways in which motivation to individuals and teams applied by John Lewis partnership
- Demonstrate in ways for how to co-operate effectively with other in John Lewis partnership
- Provide concepts and philosophies in organisational behaviour in John Lewis partnership.
Organisational behaviour termed as study of individual behaviour those who are conducting their roles and responsibilities in entity as to encourage their behavioural characteristics towards effective accomplishment of entity goals. This benefit HR team of entity to undertake developing measures to offer positive workplace environment to team and individual through which overall productivity and profitability of company can be maximized. Present report is based on John Lewis partnership, company operate their functioning as a British department store in retail industrial sector and is largest of the employee on type businesses. With quality product and services this entity is becoming one of the fastest growing shops in the provinces of United Kingdom. Present report include, impact of key essential element of organisation upon performance of team and person. Along with this report include motivational theories along with their application. Report also include belbin team role theory.
P1. Organisational aspects upon team conduct and individual
Organisational behaviour understanding allow organisation to facilitate employees performance and behaviour in an effective manner. In this HR team of respective organisation play a significant element to offer healthy as well as positive form of workplace environment in which team and individual conducted operation in a motivated manner. There are different type of factors like culture, power and politics that are having significant impact upon team and individual daily basis performance, proper understanding of these aspects lead organisation to foster healthy relationship.
- Role culture: It is form of culture; undertake same as functional way of structure whereby the manager holds the responsibilities to assign job duties to personnel belonging to the organisation as per their skills, interests and expertise. This culture when applied within the confines of JOHN LEWIS PARTNERSHIP would result in inflating the productivity level of employees as they get the roles and responsibilities as per their choice and experience This instils a sense of encouragement within individuals and groups and thus, they tend to have a positive approach towards work at all times. This makes them work in an effective and efficient manner for the accomplishment of predetermined goals and objectives.
- Task culture: This is a form of culture wherein numerous groups are created within the corporation with a view to resolve the conflicts persisting among the workforce (Jansen and Samuel, 2014). In relation to JOHN LEWIS PARTNERSHIP , the application of task culture would result in gaining the support and facilitation from employees as they see that the organisation is undertaking steps for creation of positive working atmosphere. Thus, this results in inflating their current motivational level and allows them to apply their potential for the achievement of goals.
- Person culture: Within this culture, it is seen that employees consider themselves to be superior than the corporation. This is why hereby individuals and teams start giving more importance to their self and team development rather than overall organisational growth. The application of this culture within the boundaries of JOHN LEWIS PARTNERSHIP would definitely enhance the output given by personnel individually but, would affect the overall organisational outcomes adversely Thus, the implementation of person culture results in decrement of overall productivity for corporation which would be adverse for a multinational company like JOHN LEWIS PARTNERSHIP .
- Power culture: This is a type of culture which limits the authority to take decisions in the confines of only few persons belonging to top and middle management (Burrell and Morgan 2017). Although, this consequently paces the decision making procedure, it leads to decrement of motivation and creativity within employees and teams as their views and opinions are not taken into in this culture
In accordance with above mentioned analysis this is identified that by taking use of role culture John Lewis partnership can encourage performance of team and individuals in effective manner and can further increase entity profitability.
Politics is mainly defined as dissemination and process that undertake place within organisational workplace structure (Testa and Lee, 2018). Politics is having capability to have significant impact upon performance and productivity of both employees and entity. In terms with John Lewis partnership, by adapting positive politics entity allow telecommuting, rotational shifts, and flexible working practices, taking regular feedbacks from employees, paid and sick leaves etc. It lead entity to build positive form of relationship with employees. While negative politics affect John Lewis partnership in terms of stereotypes, demotion, partiality and more. It decreases performance of both team and individuals. Thus, it has been evaluated that it is essential for John Lewis partnership to undertake use of positive politics to increase motivation and performance of team and individuals in effective manner. Positive politics if prevails in organisation workplace structure provide number of benefits to entity as it facilitate employees to perform their function in a positive working structure that automatically enhance organisation workplace efficiency.
It is defined as powerful authorities held by individuals of top managerial to mould performance and behavioural conduct of employees. In terms with John Lewis partnership, leaders undertake use of two forms of power that are being defined below
- Reward power:In this organisation by offerings different types of rewards and benefit encourage performance of employees towards accomplishment of entity goals in effective manner (Cooke, 2018). By undertaking use of reward power John Lewis partnership can motivate motivation, morale and performance of employees by offerings them bonus, awards and certification.
- Coercive power:In this entity top level of management undertake use of threats or force to make employees accomplish targets forcefully (Coccin and Cadario, 2014). It further has capacity to affect entity in number of ways like decrease in performance.
According to evaluation this has been determined that John Lewis partnership with the implementation of reward power can encourage employee’s motivation and performance in well effective manner.
M1 Culture, politics and power impact upon organisation team behaviour and individuals
While implementing power culture John Lewis partnership can decrease overall productivity of team individual and organisation in simultaneous manner. It also lead towards increasing negative politics in terms with bias, demotion, partiality and can further impact adversely upon team and individual performance. While on the other hand by applying coercive power lead entity to lower down performance of individual and team along with on their behavioural conduct. Thus, it has been evaluated that it is essential for an organisation to ensure that there is positive form of power of politics, power and culture prevails in entity working structure as it allow employees to work in a healthy workplace environment this further enhance entity profit earning capability in a best effective manner.
Thus, according to the evaluation this has been determined that it essential for respective entity to have positive form of culture, power and politics as this will help in increasing performance of employees along with enhancing overall productivity of organisation.
P2. Different motivation theories
In order to ensure maximum productivity and profitability it is essential for an organisation to keep their staff motivated in number of ways. It not only increases their morale but also enhance their loyalty towards entity goals. In context with John Lewis partnership it is essential for company HR to accomplish need of employees significantly (Christina and et. al., 2014). In this, with the application of two essential forms of motivational theories, entity aim towards enhancing satisfaction level of employees.
Content theory mainly aim towards evaluating individuals behaviour characteristics and conduct in order to further fulfil their needs in a well defined and effective manner
- Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory:This theory mainly includes different type of elements in which individual different stages of needs are defined in a pyramid form (Maio and et. al., 2019). Proper understanding of all the stages of Maslow need hierarchy theory allows John Lewis partnership management to fulfil needs of employees in effective manner.
- Physiological Needs:It includes basic need like clothing, food and shelter (Dawson, 2018). This need can be effectively fulfilled by John Lewis Management by offering sufficient salary packages additional benefits to enhance living standard of employees in best effective manner.
- Safety and Security Needs:It is essential need in which individual want to have safety and security related to their job. For this John Lewis management is required to provide facilities like life insurance and medicals to their employees along with their family members (Odor, 2018).
- Social Needs:In this need individual aim towards acceptance, love and belongingness (Cooke, 2018). For this it is important for John Lewis management to ensure that they conduct periodical get together and social events.
- Esteem Needs:This need states towards factors self-respect, status quo etc. and more. In order to accomplish this need respective management is required to provide rewards and recognition on regular basis to deserving employees (Testa and Lee, 2018). It allows them to motivate performance of workers through which entity can accomplish their objectives in effective manner.
- Self-Actualisation Needs:In this stage individual aim towards opportunities to develop and grow them in workplace structure of organisation in order to fulfil self-actualization need. John Lewis partnership is required to offer efficient development and training session to enrich employee’s knowledge skills effective manner.
By having proper understanding Maslow's Need Hierarchy Theory management of John Lewis can effectively fulfil basic needs of their workforce that facilitate sense of belongingness among that that further motivate them to perform their task with more zeal and hard work.
This theory focuses on gaining comprehensibility of the manner in which a corporation evolves and develops.
- Vroom's Expectancy Theory-Vroom expectancy theory mainly focuses upon combination of need enforcement as well as equity. With the help of this theory management of entity can motivate individuals while taking three important factors in context to appraisal, that are expectancy, instrumental and variants in effective manner (Kiatkawsin and Han, 2017). It further allows John Lewis partnership HR manager to evaluate employee’s performance accordingly and further motivate them with different appraisal and reward provisions.
- Expectancy-In this element it has been identified that as to accomplish desired outcomes individual is required to perform their work in efficient way while utilising that skills potential and competencies at great extent (Burrell and Morgan, 2017). It allows John Lewis management to effectively encourage work force to perform their roles in effective manner by offering them attractive recognition as well as rewards.
- Instrumentality-This element of respective theory mainly focuses upon the fact that employees within workplace structure mainly perform in efficient way in order to gain maximum rewards (Miner, 2015). In this it is essential for entity management to make sure that they provide promised recognition and awards to employees as to ensure their trust level towards company.
- Valence-This factor determine magnitude to which workers can be recognised and awarded in order to further encourage their performance in an effective manner as to fulfil corporate goals in time effective manner (Harris, DiPietro and Line, 2017).
M2 Way in which behaviour is affected by theories of motivation
With the assistance of Maslow theory, organisation can effectively able to maximise motivational level with the workforce in John Lewis partnership. This theory however is not having any form of disadvantage but with the application of this theory somehow to satisfy needs of all employee can sometime lead towards lower encouragement to do better. In addition to this according to positive and negative view of this theory, it has been identified that organisation by implementing this theory can maximize employees output and confidence that facilitate their positive behaviour towards more efficient performance. In addition to this, Vroom's theory aids management of John Lewis partnership to increase employees existing level of performance in a significant manner (Natvig and Stark, 2016).
P3. Ineffective v/s effective team
In an organisation team is essential element of their workplace structure as in this individual with different skills, talent and potential align to fulfil organisational objective with maximum efficiency. In this with the assistance of collaborative efforts company can effectively accomplish their aims and objectives in time effective manner and can further aim towards maximum profitability. In order to accomplish this it is essential for an organisation to develop effective team in order to utilise skills and efficiency of employees at great extent and further assign duties and task to accomplish them in targeted time to increase organisational productivity (Bester, Stander and Van Zyl, 2015). In an effective team individual those who belongs from different educational as well as professional backgrounds come together in order to accomplish a common objective of entity. In this leader play key essential role as they have responsibility to guide direct individual in team towards objective and further motivate them to overcome complex situations in effective manner.
In context with John Lewis partnership entity leader formulated effective team with the motive to operate activities of business in time effective manner and maximize workplace outcomes in order to gain maximum profitability. Mentioned below effective and ineffective team comprehensibility is being defined:
|Basis||Effective team||Ineffective team|
|Decision making||In this team roles and responsibilities are align to each and every individual according to their expertise and skill and every member are provided with equal opportunities to engage in decision making process (Huhtala and et. al., 2013). It effectively helps entity to maximize productivity of employees through which they can enhance their profitability.||In, ineffective team individuals are not allowed to engage in entity decision making process this lead towards creating dis-satisfaction among employees that adversely impact upon their overall performance.|
|Underlying goals||In effective team each and every individual are clearly make aware about their actual role and responsibilities along with the time frame in which they are required to accomplish them.||In this form of team individual are not specified about their actual responsibilities and roles that further create confusion among them and affect their performance (Bharathy, 2018).|
Tuckman Team Development Theory
For the development of an effective team, the management of John Lewis Partnership makes use of Tuckman Team Development Theory as discussed below:-
- Forming:It is the initial stage in team formation which is also known as orientation phase of tuckman team development theory, as in this every individual of team is unknown to each other and their roles and responsibility and require guidance and direction of leader (Peralta and et. al., 2018). In this John Lewis partnership leader efficiently introduce every team individual to each other along with team goal.
- Storming:Storming stage, states starting of team members to know each other. In this leader further provide knowledge related to their role in team (Jansen and Samuel, 2014). In addition to the storming stage also include coordination that has been set amongst team members in order to reduce chances of unnecessary conflicts.
- Norming:At this stage of tuckman team development theory each and every team member of John Lewis partnership are effectively make familiar with the importance of collaborative working in order to avoid any form of conflicts that affect their as well as team goals (Bester, Stander and Van Zyl, 2015).
- Performing:At this stage team member execute their roles and responsibility with effectiveness in order to accomplish goals that have been set by respective entity team leader (Burrell and Morgan, 2017). In this each and every individual undertake use of their competency skill and knowledge to accomplish goals with great effectiveness.
- Adjourning:At this stage accomplishment of entity goal is being done and team get dispersed towards new target and objectives (Christina and et. al., 2014).
John Lewis Partnership undertakes use of Belbin Theory of Team Roles as to effectively evaluate capability, potential and effectiveness of each and every team member along with their behaviour as to stimulate their performance towards more effectiveness.
- Plant:These are the individuals who are possessing capacity to undertake responsibility for establishment of healthy relationship with consumers and vendors (Natvig and Stark, 2016). It has been evaluated that plant role within John Lewis partnership is being allotted to key individual of entity.
- Resource Allocator:In this role individual in John Lewis partnership are allotted with the responsibility to allocate different type of resources to members according to their effectiveness and also have responsible to ensure that did not waste entity resources and fully utilised them to accomplish organisational goals with great effectiveness (Coccia and Cadario, 2014).
- Co-ordinator:Role of coordinator is being assigned to individual in respective organisation who is having capability to align individual behaviour towards entity objectives and goals to accomplish them in time effective manner (De Vasconcelos, Gouveia and Kimble, 2016).
- Shaper:Individual who was having responsibility of the role of shaper intro John Lewis Partnership undertake responsibility to provide drive to each and every team member in order to ensure that their roles aligned with organisational objectives in a smooth manner and did not lose their momentum in the process (Huhtala and et. al., 2013).
- Monitor evaluator:This role chosen for, individual in John Lewis who has immense form of capability to undertake decision in an unbiased manner by effectively evaluating whole available alternatives (Jansen and Samuel, 2014).
- Team-worker:In this individual within respective organisation mainly focus upon development of team Spirit among employees as to further create collaborative as well as positive workplace environment (Kiatkawsin and Han, 2017).
- Implementer:Role of implementer is being performed by individuals who have responsibilities to apply strategies as to enhance team performance (Miner, 2015).
- Completer Finisher:The role of completer finisher individual is being offered to person in John Lewis Partnership who are having responsibility effectively polish and scrutinise work of others in order to identify any mistakes in time effective manner and further reduce unnecessary error in order to increase efficiency of quality control (Harris, DiPietro and Line, 2017).
- Specialist:In John Lewis partnership roles of specialist is being allotted to individual who have efficiency to provide effective related to technique and strategies through which completion of objective can be effectively accomplished (Testa and Lee, 2018). It provides entity to further entity with the benefit of efficient strategies to accomplish and company goals with great effectiveness.
However it has been evaluated that there are number of skills and factors that act as measured that restrict or aid effective teamwork. In this it is essential for respective organisation to facilitate factors as well as skills that restrict or aid developing collaborative workplace environment and provide effective leadership to accomplish objectives in time effective manner. Restraining factors like perpetual barriers, conflicts and languages barriers can affect team work, in this with the assistance of team dynamics leader of John Lewis partnership can effectively facilitate behaviour of team individual and further direct them in a positive manner to identity goals.
M3. Group and team development theories
With the assistance of Tuckman Team Development Theory John Lewis partnership can effectively build an effective team by evaluating them in a step-by-step manner with use of five stages. This effectively facilitate organisation to accomplish their goals and stipulated objectives in time effective manner (Bharathy, 2018). In addition to this by implementing the Belbin's theory leaders with an entity can allot roles and responsibility to individual according to their professional competency and behavioural characteristics. Thus, with the application of both of these theories respective organisation can facilitate growth and development in a cooperative and effective manner.
With the assistance of team as well as group development theories respective organisation can effectively able to make their employees in a well defined and directed manner. It not only aid entity to maximise performance efficiency of employees but allow increasing organisational profitability at great extent.
P4. Concepts and Philosophies of Organisational Behaviour
Organisational behaviour is defined as a combination of beliefs, ideologies, tradition, values, concept etc (Cooke, 2018). In this leader play key essential role to effectively align workforce characteristics in order to fulfil entity objectives.
This is being determined that, at present time John Lewis partnership is duly impacted by ineffective communication that prevails within management and workforce. It affects entity in generating various form of confusion among employees that further lead towards delay in accomplishment of entity goals.
In order to overcome this situation management of John Lewis partnership is decided to implement path goal theory.
Path Goal Theory
Path goal theory mainly focus on carrying out of diverse form of leadership style according to situation and atmosphere that are prevailing in workplace structure in this, this theory is being applied within John Lewis partnership to overcome ineffective communication issues effectively.
Classification of Path Goal Theory
In this leader of John Lewis undertake knowledge in context with characteristic as well as behaviour of employees as to implement effective strategies and practices through which their performance can be motivated towards organisational goals (Dawson, 2018). With this positive impact upon employees behaviour can be measured through which entity can fulfil their goals in effective manner.
Environment and Task Characteristics:
In this leader of respective organisation identify core issue that employees in workforce are facing in order to further implement strategies to create a positive workplace environment and resolve issue of employee to motivate them in effective manner. This will further allow them to fulfil task in appropriate time frame with the help of positive workplace environment performance as well as productivity of employees can be maximized.
Leadership Behaviour or Style:
In this after identifying behavioural characteristics of employees and formulating friendly relationship with them, leader’s undertaker use of effective form of leadership style as to overcome business situation that respective entity employees is facing.
According to this it has been evaluated that John Lewis leaders by taking advantage of participative leadership style can overcome in effective communication issues in effective manner. With the application of this leadership style employees can be engage in organisation decision making process through which communication can be facilitated in a positive manner. It helps in developing effective relationship with management and employees and further maximizes overall productivity and profitability of entity (Odor, 2018). However it has been identified that participative leadership style is having both positive and negative influence, in this it is essential for leader to understand both of these aspects and apply this theory to motivate workforce and overcome the negative factor of this theory like emergence of divergent point of views among group members in effective manner.
M4. Philosophies and concepts of OB
Organisational behaviour concept includes path goal theory in which task and environmental characteristics, employee characteristics and leadership style or behaviour is included. All these aspects effectively facilitate and contribute their significant contribution in business that allows them to deal with different situation in effective manner. In this by applying participated leadership Theory entity can effectively overcome complex business situation like, ineffective form of communication in effective manner and can further create positive workplace environment (Maio and et. al., 2019). Along with philosophies of OB include autocratic as well as contingency philosophy this allow entity to develop futuristic plans along with focusing upon creation of plans that are confined to an individual to effectively in order to overcome ineffective form of communication. In this John Lewis partnership will undertake use of contingency philosophy.
According to project, there are different type of factors prevailing in environment which is having immense capability to impact upon organisation individual and team and affect ability to deliver their performance. In order to overcome adverse impact of these factors it is essential for entity to undertake use of different type of process and content motivational theories as to maximize motivation and morale of workforce to further facilities them towards organisational objectives. In addition to this by taking use of tuckman team development and belbin team roles, leader within an organisation can align each and every individual according to their expertise roles and responsibilities. By making individuals work in a team aid entity to create collaborative workplace environment through which they can further maximize overall productivity and profitability of entity at great extent. Along with this it has been evaluated that participated leadership style also aid entity to improve organizational business situation of effective communication.
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