organisational behaviour is a study of people that in which manner they interact with each other. It is a scientific method which is applied on management of employees. Organisational behaviour theories is use for the enhancing the productivity of the employees as well as organisation. In this report chosen company is Mark & Spencer which deals in retail industry. It was established in 1884 by Thomas Spencer and Michael Marks(Carney, Cuddy and Yap, 2015). Its headquarters situated in London, United Kingdom. In this report include, organisational culture, power and politics and different motivational theories such as content and process theory of motivation. In this also include different types of team and Tuckmen and Jensen's model of team. At last include, concept of organisation and Path Goal Theory.
P1. Organisational culture, power, politics:
Organisational culture is a process of thoughts, beliefs, values of people. In this culture include an organisation;s value, experience, philosophy, expectations which guide the behaviour of individuals in an organisation. Culture considered the organisation's values, systems, assumption, language, beliefs, environment, habits, location, norms, vision.
Types of culture:
culture are many types here discussed about Handy's typology culture which are mentioned below:
Handy's typology of culture:
Charles Handy's was born in Ireland in 1932. and he is a good philosopher who very well understands the organisational culture. In this model include four types of culture such as power culture, task, role and person culture that are as follows:
- Power culture: In power culture, power and authority is hold by top managers who give orders to their subordinates(Coccia and Cadario, 2014). Managers are decide what to do or what not to do and employees have follow their orders because they don't have any other choices. If this power culture is used in M&S then its influence the employees' behaviour in negatively because managers strict to their employees.
- Task culture: Task culture is invented when some specific issues and problems are arises in the organisation, then teams are formed for solving these particular task. Members with good skills and knowledge can give effective and creative productivity in solving that particular task. If this task culture is used in M&S, then its impact in positive manner because when skilled and qualified members are get together for solving a task then they give very effective results to the company.
- Role culture: In role culture, managers are give role and job for their employees according to their interest and specialisation. Employees are very well known about their work and job in the organisation. If role culture is adopted in M&S the, it influence the employees effectively because work is given them to according their interest in which they are very happy about it and give their best to the company.
- Person culture: Person culture is a culture in which individuals give priority to themselves rather than organisation. Employees think that they are superior for their organisation and they only come for make money and go. If this culture is use in M&S, then its affect the company in negative manner because employees come only for their mean and they don't take any interest in the company's target and goals(Kitchin, 2017).
From the above culture M&S adopt role culture in their company because role culture influence their employees in positive and effective manner which increase the productivity of the employees as well as organisation.
Organisational power means power is take by only some people like top managers, executives etc. In this managers give orders and direction to their employees and some times they delegate some authorities to their employees for better performance of work.
Types of power:
Power is many types such as coercive power, reward power, referent power, legitimate power, expert power etc. which are follows:
- Coercive power: In this power, managers give orders to their employees and they have to strictly follow their managers orders. In m&s, if this power is exist then its leads the employees turnover because if employees do not follow their managers orders then managers threaten them.
- Reward power: In reward power, mangers motivate their employees by giving promotions, incentives, allowances etc. for better performance of work. If this power is exist in M&S then its influence the employees in effective and motivated manner because if employees doing hard work then they can gain reward.
- Referent power: This power is related to respect. Employees wants respect from their managers, pears etc(Norton, Zacher and Ashkanasy, 2014). It can occur when an individual has an ability of influence the others. If this power is use in M&S, then its influence the employees as well as company in positive manner.
From the above organisational power, M&S adopt reward power in their company because its influence the employees towards giving better performance of work.
Organisational politics are unofficial and informal which influence an organisation in both positive and negative manner, can increase the power and achieve targeted goals. Sometimes mangers play negatives politics in which they do not treat their employees on equal basis which create an negative environment in the company. M&S use organisational politics but in positive manner which increase the productivity of the company.
P2. Content and process theory of motivation:
Motivation is a factor which is encourage the employees to doing better work in an organisation. In M&S, motivation is increase by reward systems such as promotions, incentives, providing allowances, money etc. Motivated employees doing hard work and give their best productivity to the company. There are many theories of motivation which is influence the employees which are as follows:
Content theory of motivation:
Content theory of motivation is find out that what motivates the people(Okurame, 2012). In this include many theories but in this discussed about only Maslow's Hierarchy Theory which is mentioned as under:
- Maslow's Hierarchy of Need theory: Abraham Maslow give this theory in hierarchy form which is divided in five categories:
- Psychological need: In this includes basic needs such as food, water, clothes, shelter etc. M&S should provide this all basic needs to their employees by giving them basic salary.
- Security need: In this include job security, health and safety, security from physical danger etc. M&S should motivate their employees by providing all these securities(Wood and et. al., 2012).
- Social need: In this need involve love, affection, belongingness etc. M&S can motivate their employees by providing loveable and kindness environment. They can take affection and love from their managers, pears etc.
- Esteem need: In this include self respect, honour, status etc. Managers of M&S should provide respect, status to their employees in which they can motivated and doing hard work.
- Self-actualisation need: Employees of M&S wants their growth, development and advancement form their company. Because at this stage, all these needs are become main priority for an employee.
Process theory of motivation:
Process theory of motivation is find out that how can motivates the people. In this considered many theories but in this discussed about only which is mentioned below:
- Adam's equity theory: This theory is about equality of employees. It develop a ratio of input and output and equity is gain when the ratios are equal for each one in the company. In this include three steps in the context of M&S, which are as follows:
- Equity: when inputs and outputs are equal with another persons then equity is occur.
- Underpaid inequity: Underpaid equity is occur when an employees think that their outputs are less than inputs in compare to others.
- Overpaid inequity: Overpaid equity is arises when a subordinate perceive that their outputs are more than their inputs in compare to others.
Techniques of motivation:
There are many types of techniques of motivation which are as follows:
- Provides incentives: Managers of M&S motivate their employees by giving incentives to them. They can create incentives for each employees by motivating them towards hard work. Incentives can be monetary and non monetary(Robbins and et. al., 2013).
- Create a positive work environment: M&S motivates their workers through provide positive, updated and creative work environment in which workers give better performance of their work and achieve organisational goals easily.
P3. Different types of team and Tuckmen and Jensen's model of team:
Team is a group of four and five members in which include skilled and qualified persons who are get together to solving a particular issue and problem of an organisation. In this members of group learn that how to support each other and crate a positive environment in which they can openly and frankly share their ideas and thoughts.
- Effective team:Effective team is group of formal persons who have many qualities and skills which enhance their performance and productivity. This helps them to achieve objective of team.
- Ineffective team:In effective team includes unskilled people, less knowledge of work. Between members conflicts are always arises in which they do not complete task properly(Shore and Wright, 2015).
- Different types of teams:In this includes various types of teams such as project-solving team, virtual team, functional team etc. which are as follows:
- Problem solving team: In M&S, problem-solving team is form only on temporary basis in which team members solve a specific problem of the company. After completion of work team is dissolved.
- Cross-functional team: This types of team is form on permanent basis and they solve several problems of the company. This team members cooperate with other departments of the company for achieving certain targets of the company like launching a new product in the market.
- Virtual team: Members of virtual team communicate in digital from rather then face to face. M&S choose qualified persons from different different area and make team of them and they are solving the company's issues and problems from their location.
Tuckmen and Jensen's model of team:
This model is given in 1965 by Bruce Tuckmen who give the different stage of a team which are as follows in the context of M&S:
- Forming: In this stage, team is form and team members are unknown with each others. Some persons are anxious and some are very polite and they don't know that which type of work is done by them.
- Storming: In this stage, conflicts and problems are arises among team members and they start to become frustrate from each others because all members have differ differ style of working.
- Norming: In this phase, members start to solve their issues and differences and appreciate their peers performance and give respect to the decisions of leader. Team members know each other very well and start to give support their members(Silberzahn and et. al., 2018) .
- Performing: In this stage, members start to perform hard work for achieving the target of team. Leader of team delegates much work to their members and develop them.
- Adjourning: This is the last stage of team in which team is dissolved after completing the targeted task of the team and team members separate from each other.
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P4. Concept and philosophy(Path Goal Theory) of organisational behaviour:
Concept of organisational behaviour:
Organisation is the process of grouping and distinguishing the work to be empowerment of responsibility and control, defining and performed and and forming the relationships for the aim of enabling subordinates to perform very efficiently completing targets. In M&S, the project is defined to every employee and authority and duties is fixed for gaining the same.
Path Goal Theory:
Path goal theory was developed by Martin Evans in 1970. This model is based on Vroom's expectancy theory. This theory defines the manner of leader in which they support and encourage their followers for accomplishing the targeted goals and objectives. For this, leaders set an effective path in which employees easily clear the goals. In this includes some steps which are mentioned below:
- Employee Characteristics: Employees understand their leader's activity based on their necessity, like they want stage of structure, perceived level of quality, association, and desire for power. For example, if more structure is provided by leader of M&S, than what they want, employees gets distracted and their motivation is turn into low(Teh, and Sun, 2012). Thus, a leader necessarily to interpret their workers so they recognise that how to motivate them effectively.
- Environmental and task characteristics: Path goal theory mainly focus on the overcoming obstacles. If any problems and issues become more strong in M&S company, then leaders have to step in and support to employees to choose a better path for goof work. There some difficult task which often arises:
Design of the task:
This task is made for the leader's help.
- Formal authority system: In this leader provide definite goals to their employees and give them some control.
- Work group: When team is not support to each other and leader then, leader require to be adopt and cohesiveness esprit-de-crops which gives devotion, comradeship and enthusiasm to all the persons of group.
- Style of leader: In leadership style includes four styles and behaviour of leader in the context of M&S which are as follows:
- Directive: In this, leader of M&S direct their followers by telling them how to do task, in what manner and coordinating their work(Unsworth, Dmitrieva and Adriasola, 2013).
- Supportive:The leader of M&S create task pleasant for their followers by showing anxiety for them and being approachable and friendly with them.
- Participative: In this, leader of M&S asking and discussed with their employees before taking any decision that how to proceed. This leadership style is best situated in those situation when employees are highly trained.
- Achievement: In this style, leaders of M&S set the goals and challenges for their employees and encourage them to achieve those targets. This style is effective in professional work like scientific work, technical work etc.
Focus on motivation:
- Defines goals: In this, leader clearly defines the goal to their followers in which they can easily achieve the goals of the company .
- Clarify path: After define the goal, leader guide them about which path is best for achieving the desired results.
- Remove obstacles: If any problems and obstacles are arises between completing the goal then, try to solve those obstacles and make the path clear(Wong, Wong and Ngo, 2012).
- Provide support: If members have any problem regarding to solving task then, leader support them to solving their issues and helping in achieving the targeted goal.
Barriers in effective performance:
There can be many barriers in effective performance which are as follows:
- poor communication.
- Unclear strategy, goals, values, path etc.
- poor leadership style and management quality.
- Poor coordination.
From the above given report, it has been summarized that organisational culture influence the behaviour of the employees and can change their perception towards another employees. Organisational power affect the behaviour of employees in both positive and negative manner and motivated them by providing reward systems. In this many motivational theories encourage the employees in differ differ manner for providing the better performance of work. Maslow's need theory fulfil the individuals needs in hierarchy form in which employees wants are increase by time to time. Effective team support the organisation to solve its problems and issues. For differ differ problems, organisation build the various types of team who solve all the problems within the given time period. In path goal theory, leaders are support and guide their followers to achieve organisational goals in effective manner.