Human resource management (HRM) is an important aspect of working of an organization. It aims to manage people and the aspects related to them in the workplace. Apart from handling the employee centred activities, an essential role is played by HRM in development of strategy of a company. Service industry is involved in provision of services or intangible goods to consumers. HRM makes a vital contribution to the functioning and growth of organizations in service industry as well. The present report focuses on human resource management for service industries. Various scenarios have been analysed in the report. Based on those scenarios, efforts have been made to understand human resource management (Cho and et. al., 2006). Further, the effect of employee relations and employment law on service industry has been analysed. Information has been obtained about the recruitment and selection process. Lastly, the report makes an attempt to understand training and development in service industries business.
1.1 Analysis of role and purpose of human resource management in Hilton Hotel Stratford
The concept of human resource management can be described as a function which is designed to maximize employee performance in accordance with the strategic objectives of the organization. Primarily, it is concerned with management of people within organizations by focusing on policies and systems. Following is the analysis of role and purpose of human resource management in Hilton Hotel Stratford:
Planning and forecasting- HRM play at the Hilton hotel plays an important role in forecasting the labor needs of the organization and the effect these will have on the business. One of the basic forecasting task that is performed by HR management is related to the projection of an organizational chart. HRM is also involved in keeping a close check on the declining sales and making forecasts in relation to it. Following it, forecasts about the staff requirements are made by HR (Kolb, 2014). The purpose of HRM is also to forecast the type and number of workers that will be required by Hilton hotel Stratford.
Recruitment process- Recruitment is one of the most important functions which is performed by HR. HRM helps in finding and attracting capable applicants for employment. Talent selection and acquisition is considered to be a complicated process which is performed by the HRM function. The human resource team is involved in sourcing and mining of talent. They also screen, evaluate and analyse the applicants. In this way, the HRM at Hilton Hotel Stratford analyses organizational gap and attracts, evaluated and hires employees to fill that gap.
Contracts of employment and deployment- the purpose and role of HRM is also reflected in the form of contracts of employment and deployment which are prepared by the HR team (Riley, 2014).
Monitoring of employees- The purpose of HRM at Hilton Hotel Stratford is to monitor the employees regarding various aspects at all levels of the organization. The HR managers work together to provide advise to the managers regarding the different roles that can be assigned to the employees within the hotel. HR management also monitors the employees to determine their concerns and the issues that they are facing.
Training and development- it is one of the key purposes of HRM to ensure that the people within a business possess the right set of skills and qualifications so that current and future needs can be met. By responding to the changing and dynamic demands of the competitive environment.
Budget monitoring- HRM also plays a vital role in budget monitoring at Hilton Hotel Stratford. The forecasts made by human resource manager helps the hotel to plan budgets on the future staffing levels. For example, if demand forecasting indicates the need for more staff at the hotel, HR review determines the best way in which this could be handled. Every year, the HR manager is responsible for forecasting personnel costs with the help of budgeting (Hoque, 2013).
Soft HRM is concerned with treating the employees as the most important resource that organization possesses. A per this views, the employees are considered to be competitive advantage for the hotel. The role and purpose of soft HRM is to focus on the needs of the employees, their roles, rewards and motivation. This is do to gain strategic focus on long term workforce planning. It plays a vital role in the hotel by maintaining two way communication, appraisal systems, employee empowerment, rewards etc. In contrast to this, hard HRM treats the employees merely as a resource of business similar to machines and buildings. The purpose of this HRM is to have a strong link with the corporate business planning.
1.2 Justifying a human resource plan
Human resource plan can be formed on the basis of analysis of supply and demand with reference to Hilton Hotel Stratford. The environment is changing and the guests expect high degree of convenience and high quality services at the hotel. Time has become an important factor and the guests assign great value to it. Hence, they expect the hotel staff to provide services as and when they are required. There are various internal and external factors which affect service industry. There is high level of competition in the service industry (Arasli, Bavik and Ekiz, 2006).
Hilton Hotel is a five star luxury hotel and is renowned for its high quality service. There are a number of new entrants which are snatching the customers of existing hotel organizations. In order to stay competitive, Hilton hotel Stratford is required to maintain its standards. HR planning is also impacted by legislation (Benjamin, 2015). The laws on non- discrimination, safeguarding, confidentiality etc. are all required to be followed by HRM. Internal policies and procedures related to employee relations also impact the activities of HR.
The human resource plan for Hilton Hotel Stratford can be explained as follows:
- To provide high-quality service and keep to the standards of Hilton Group
- To provide a range of services to the guests on time
- To provide expertise in every area of service offered by the hotel
The hotel needs an executive assistant manager, room divisions manager, accounting manager, marketing and sales staff, purchasing department and food and beverage department. Further, the room divisions manager would work with the help of a team which will comprise of front office, housekeeping, telephone and security.
The employees need to be trained in providing various services. Language training is also required to be given so that the hotel is able to provide multilingual staff to the guests. The hotel also requires additional staff to provide the wide range of services that it claims to offer (Wilson, 2014).
Assessment of Employee Needs
After assessment of employee needs and analysis of supply and demand, it can be evaluated that external as well as internal staff will be required for fulfilling the needs.
For fulfilling some needs of the employees, such as training for housekeeping and other regular processes of hotel, the existing staff can be appointed. However, for training the staff for new services such as spa, multi lingual skills, fitness room, Sauna and steam room, external staff is to be recruited. This would be done via external recruitment (Shamim Khan and et.al., 2013) .
The following is the organizational chart to support the business plan.
2.1 Assessment of the current state of employment relations for the Hotel Industry
The current state of employment relations for hotel industry can be assessed. Hotel industry is labour intensive sector which is characterized by lower levels of affiliation to employer organizations and trade unions.
Currently, hospitality industry suffers from a low rate of employee engagement. Hotel organizations are facing threats of unionisation, lack of trust and poor customer service. Workplace trust has been a major aspect in the employment relations of hotel industry. There has been observed a decline in trust (Garlick, 2015). The employees do not trust their management to make right decisions during the situations of uncertainty. Due to this high level of mistrust on the management, the hotel organizations like Hilton Hotel Stratford become vulnerable to unionisation. Lack of trust has negatively impacted hospitality companies in various ways.
On assessing the current state of employment relations for hotel industry, it was found that collaboration and cooperation are critical among hotel workers. Employees who belong to strong work culture take the responsibility of stepping up and crossing training one another. They are also ready to assist their co-workers in all the areas of work within the hotel.
Employee participation is a key factor at Hilton hotel. The human resource department of the hotel engages the employees to raise their participation in the company. Participation is important as it provides the feeling of empowerment within the employees. The employees are guided by the managers mentors who guide and motivate the employees. The company has introduced a SPARK management program in order to develop the working skills of the employees (Cho and et. al., 2006). Employees involvement in the workplace as it helps both the management and the employee to interact and know the strengths and weakness.
Conflict management deals with the conflict and grievances that arise in the hotel. Grievances are part and parcel of the workplace. But it is important for the human resource to engage the employees and solve the conflict among them. Hilton hotels gave formulated specific grievance procedure for employees to manage the conflict situations. Various emails and supervisory advise is available to the employees to improve the working conditions in the company. The company aims to solve the grievances and conflict in a soft and smooth manner. In case of serious issues among the employees the line manager may decide to suspend the duties of the charged employee (Noe and et.al., 2014) .
The training and development department of the Hilton hotel strikes to motivate and empower the employees. The human resource of Hilton believes that communication is the key tool to improve empowerment among the employees. New joinees in the company are hesitant to take up new roles and responsibilities. It is up-to the supervisor or the managers to empower them to join in new responsibilities. The human resource management of the company guides the employees toward their empowerment through the use of real life examples. This helps them to improve their skills and motivate them.
Cordial and harmonious relations among the employees the management improves compatibility among them. A good harmonious working environment for the development of the employees and company (Ford, 2014).
2.2 Affect of employment law on the management of human resources
Employment law is formulated for to cover the rights of employee/employer relationship except the negotiation process which is covered in the labor law. Employment law was framed to safeguard and describe the rights and duties of the employee and employer working in an organization.
- The employee relation act describes the relationship between the employee and the employer. It consists of the right of candidate appearing for a job. Thus each owner employing the individual in the company has obligations for them.
- The law states that every employee consists of equal rights and power assigned to them as their job responsibility. The company has to understand the integrity of each employee and they must be provided with development opportunities (Landis and Brislin, 2013).
- The contract of employment must include elements like termination, salary statement, rules and regulation, job responsibility, leave a statement and etc. The employee is entitled to minimum notice period which he is entitled to serve in the company. It is important for the employer to make clear terms of the basis of the termination.
- An employees contract in the hotel can be terminated on the bases of dismissal, redundancy, or retirement. The employers is authorized to follow a strict procedure in case redundancy (Wilson, 2014) .
- Redundancy only occurs in the case of closure of the organization or reduction of staff. The employee has a right to get paid with the minimum amount as per the redundancy policy of the company. The employer must pay to the employee as per his/her job profile.
- Retirement in the UK's hotel industry is granted at the age of 65 (Ottenbacher and Gnoth, 2005). Retirement is a form of resignation which an employee is not bound to take, but is voluntary as per the companies policies. Some employees decide to set a retirement age which is also voluntary as per the needs of the employer.
- The employee is also entitled to paid and non paid leave by the hospitality industry. Maternity and paternity leaves are granted and included in the employment contract. Maternity and paternity leave is the right of the employee to take on the basis of their suitability. The hotel is bound to grant these leaves and no discrimination can be addressed on grounds of leave approval (Karlan and Valdivia, 2011) .
The advisory, conciliation and arbitration service is a nonpublic body of the government. Its aim is to provide information about the conciliation and arbitration services of the company. These services improve the working life of the organization by promoting industrial relations in the hospitality industry. ACAS is an independent body which works for resolving the disputes of the employee in the industry. The body provides advice's to the employer to promote a cordial and healthy working environment in the company. It provides expert counseling and advices in cases of disputes. These advice's aim to provide support services to the employer and the employee (Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S. and Law, 2007).
Employees are entitled to benefits which include holidays, medical facility, n insurance, and wellness programs. These services improve and build the employee to work better in the organization.
3.1 Job description of Receptionist in Hilton
The receptionist job description is a list of functions, tasks, and responsibilities of the position. The receptionist job description is described below-
The hotel receptionist is a trained person whose major duty is to welcome guests in the hotel. Reservations in the hotel are checked by the receptionist. He/she must be able to attend to every need of the guest of the hotel. He/she must be very friendly and courteous towards the guest. It is the receptionist duty to generate a remarkable first impression on the guest. She/he must make it to her sole responsibility to make the guest feel comfortable in the hotel (Karlan and Valdivia, 2011).
Duties and Responsibilities
- To manage front office duties like meeting and greeting the guests and courteously attending to the needs of guests.
- To properly communicate with the guest. To build a good understanding to their needs.
- To generate the highest customer satisfaction by resolving their issues and problems.
- To be responsible for accurate and efficient accounts and guest billing processes.
- To keep the hotel reception and the front desk area neat and clean all the time (Shamim Khan and et.al., 2013).
- To attends emails, calls, filing of switchboard and transferring calls to the desired guest.
- To ensure that all the room booking are accurate and correctly booked and recorded.
- To ensure and check for any booking cancellation.
- To provide brochures containing information about the hotel's offers and tariff
- To report for any cleanliness issue occurring the hotel.
- To manage the petty cash book of the hotel of day to day basis (Fleck and Kraemer, 2014).
- To manage to take any extra responsibility induced by the manager of the hotel.
- To complete the procedure and paperwork of check in and check out by the guest.
- To appropriately charge for extra room service and properly allotting room to the guest. Taking care of the room key handed over by the guest.
- To answer any extra request of the guest. To also deal with questions related to the inquiry of bookings in the hotel.
Skills and Specifications
- The receptionist must be excellent in spoken English language.
- He/she must be efficient in communication skills (Budhwar and Debrah, 2013).
- The receptionist must be trained in answering telephone calls.
- He/she must be patient enough to handle the request of patience and to solve any issue faced by the guest.
- The individual must be an efficient use of technology and computers. They must know how to operate all Microsoft office features.
- He/she must possess good administrative skills.
- Must be smart enough to handle any extreme pressure brought by the guest (Harrison, 2011).
- The receptionist should be able to work in a team and understand the concept of teamwork.
The receptionist must have the experience to work in the hospitality industry. The person should be graduated in hospitality management with a degree in first grade from a reputed institution. He/she must have served as an intern in a reputed hotel or hospitality organization.
The receptionist is the first person that the guest or inquirer meets at the front office in a hotel. It is important for the individual to politely greet the guest.
3.2 Comparison of the different selection process
A selection process is a process of selecting the right candidate for the job by a human resource manager. Various methods are used by a human resource manager to select an individual for the required job profile.
Different methods of selection are listed below-
- Physical Ability Test
- Cognitive Ability test
Interviews are the most appropriate method used by a human resource manager. They provide one to one discussion session with the candidate. In an interview, the manager initiates various topics for discussion with the candidate (Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S. and Law, 2007). The candidate indulges in the discussion and answers all the question asked by the interviewer. There are personal, telephonic interview and E interview. Personal interview are generally taken in the respective companies issues. Whereas telephonic interview is always done through a telephone. The recruiter or the candidate is not physically present in the interview. E interview is the latest most popular type of interview. In this Skype or other digital media is used by the interviewer to conduct the interview session. In this kind of interviews also the candidate is not physically present but both the candidates and the interviewer can see each other through cameras.
Physical Ability test are useful to predict performance but also the disabilities in an candidates. These kind of interviews are generally held for military, navy or field which require physical strengths as their job profile. These interview test the candidates on the basis of their strength, flexibility balance of mind, coordination with other members as well as their reasoning ability (Edwards, Sieminski and Zeldin, 2014) .
Cognitive ability test identifies capacity of n individual based on their mental level. The test is based on topics of reasoning, quantitative questions and verbal comprehensive task. The candidate has to secure highest score to get selected through this procedure. Work experience of the is also counted as the part of selection.
Hilton hotel operates in a wide range of countries with wide range of cultural diversity. The best suitable method for the Hilton hotel will be the interviews method. It will be comfortable for the interviewer to even interview candidates living in other countries. It is convenient and will prove to be the method for the hotel. Talented bunch of candidates can be hired through these interviews as this method will highlight the major personality traits required by the hotel in a candidate (Karlan and Valdivia, 2011).
Barriers to Effective Selection
There are many barriers which affect the quality of the selection process. These factors are generally counted on the grounds of the interviewer as it is his/her duty to provide best selective candidate.
- Quick decision-making ability creates a judgemental error. The interviewer might fell to understand what skills does the candidate. The interviewer must take time to evaluate the candidate.
- The job description is based on industry standards. The structure of the organization is also a factor which influences the selecting criteria (Landis and Brislin, 2013).
- False information provided by the candidates fools the interviewer. It hampers the decision-making ability of the interviewer. The candidate must provide the right information to the interviewer.
4.1 Assessment of the contribution of training and development activities
Training refers to the methods used by an employer to improve the skills and efficiency of the employee. Training and developments promotes the skills of the employee and mentally prepares the employee for the new job and responsibility. Every hospitality company requires skilled and well-groomed candidates who understand the job responsibly. A trainer or mentor is appointed by the supervisor to guide the employee about his/her training process. Training development has proved to a beneficial tool in development of an organisation. To conduct a training session in the organization it is important to know the objectives of the training sand development in the hospitality industry, which are-
- To identify the nature of training program.
- To implement training and development strategy (Alleyne, Doherty and Greenidge, 2006).
- To evaluate the effectiveness of training and development programs.
- To identify the adequacy of training programs in the company.
There are also various types of training provided in the Hilton hotels which are as followed.
Apprentice training- To introduce major skills required by the work profile.
Certification training- Professional training are provided in which certificate are provided.
Simulation training- To improve the methods and working style of the employee simulation training is done by the human resource department of the hotel (Melby-Lervåg and Hulme, 2013).
On the job training- Major role and responsibility of various new task are explained on the job by the human resource manager.
Language training- To work in Hilton it is important for the employee to speak more than two language apart from English. Language training are provided to the employee who lack in the same criteria.
Administrative training- To improve administrative skills in the employees this training is conducted for specific positions.
Cross training- to ensure a proper channel of communication this training is conducted to promote communication among various department of the organizations.
Management development programs- Management development programs are formulated specifically for the managers or senior departmental heads to improve their skills and develop managership in the employees (Kolb, 2014).
Contribution of training and development in Hilton is studied under-
- Training and development provides great scope for the human resource department to increase their skills and strengths. It provides an opportunity for the human resource managers to conduct activities and attain personal growth in the organisation.
- Training improves the quality of work life and builds harmonious relation among the employees. It promotes healthy work environment in the hotel.
- It also helps to improves the morales of the employee working in the organization. As training helps to understand the strengths and weakness of the employee. It raises the morales in the employed as they get a chance top increase their strength level.
- To develop the culture of organization a training and development environment is important. As training generate culture dynamics among the employees working in the organization. It increases the culture of the Hilton (Hoque, 2013).
- Training and development help to builds team building among the employees working in the organization. Team building is important as it increase the team spirit and cooperation among the team members.
- Training and development enhances the technical knowledge of the employee. In this advanced technological era is ever changing new updates are always available. To keep on track of these advances it is important to conduct training and development session.
- Employees with limited skills and experience create a back log for the company. Training and development help to enhance these employees mill and helps to generate the maximum output from them.
- Training and development helps to reduce high employee turnover in the organisation. Training and development helps to conduct regular training session which helps the human resource manager to keep a check on the profitability of employee in the organization (Wilson, 2014).
- These training and development programs provides the employees to increase their efficiency inn gaining guest satisfaction. Working in a hospitality industry it is important to gain the maximum customer satisfaction. As guest satisfaction is the profit which the hotel industry gains.
- Training and development also helps the employee to build career development. This also increases lifelong learning skills in the employee. The employee gets motivated towards the advantages of lifelong learning.
- The best advantage of training and development is that it generates motivation among the employees. With one to one counselling session the employee's get inspire. This build confidence among the employees.
- On the job training methods helps to increase the efficiency and liability among the employees. The manager can understand the weakness of the employee and guide them to work for the same.
- Management development programs lets the human resource and the departmental managers to increase their managership and leadership (Shamim Khan and et.al., 2013)
The study on the human resource management of the Hilton hotel shows how it is important for the human resource manager to manage the employees of the company. The study shows the important of laws for the benefits of the employee. The formulation have helped to promote smooth working of the organization (Sun, L. Y., Aryee, S. and Law, 2007). The hotel industry abides by the various norms provided in the law. The research also shows the organizational structure of the company. The Hilton hotel is governed by the various departmental heads who manage the effective working. These factors of training and development helps in smooth functioning of the organization.