The scenario is based on a manager who manages all the activities of a large departmental store. He is giving 5% raise to employees but his PA, an invaluable asset, is asking for 10% raise. Manager appropriately negotiated with PA and company wants him to write a report on concepts of negotiation.
- Evaluation of a particular context of negotiation and figure out information required to prepare for negotiation process at M&S.
- Identify and manage complete documentation process of getting tenders and contracts.
- To develop a presentation for attaining sustainable competitive advantage.
- Evaluate outcome of pitching & negotiation and provide recommendations for post-pitch activities.
Pitch may be defined as an activity that create sales by making customers aware regarding the values which will derives from organisational solutions and compels to people for actioning towards this. It is an essential that create more powerful customers and communicate about particular products or services as well. In the present scenario, there must be required to have negotiation and pitching skills within the firm (Chang, 2013). These skills are necessary for every organisation for increasings sales volume and achieve competitive advantages. This report is based on Mark and Spencer which is British Multi-national retailer firm and its headquarter in London. This assignment define the negotiation and its key stakeholders for the process to commence. It will explain the negotiation process and present solution. This will also consider the RFP procedure and evaluate the competitive tenders and contract process in the report. It will define several ways for maximising pitch for sustainable competitive edge. Potential outcomes of a pitch and determine issues or risk management also will discuss here.
P1 Determine negotiation and its key stakeholders for the process to commence
Negotiation defined as the process in which points of differences are resolved for gaining advantages for any person as well as collective. Its main aim is satisfy several interest and this generally conduct to make concessions for achieving any particular agreement. It is a set of procedure in which major differences are to be settled down. Therefore, negotiation is considered as the compromising among various individuals or group of people regarding any disputes as well as arguments which can be raised within the organisation. It generally occurs during the dealing and buying any goods or services as well (Rieple, 2013). It can be possible to achieve successful outcomes by understanding the aims or objectives for particular positions. It must be required to have mutual understanding and benefits for both parties so that relationship can be maintained in an appropriate manner. There are several reasons behind the occurrence of negotiation which are as follows:
- Avoid conflicts: It can be a major reasons of occurring the negotiation while running an organisation. There are various kinds situations that are mainly causes of conflicts as well as barriers during operating business such as assigning tasks among people or allocating resources and making any agreements or deals at the workplace. In the M&S firm, they focus on these kinds of situations and try to resolve issues in an appropriate manner. Therefore, they consider effective tools or elements for making favourable decisions regarding utilisation to achieve business goals or objectives in better ways.
- Create win win situations: In this defined that every people should have better negotiation skills for settling down any major problem because it helps in making decision for organisational benefits (Cooke, 2015). Therefore, it is necessary to create best possible situations such as win win by ensuring that every person will get advantages with this decision. This can be difficult process to negotiate for particular topic that is why it highly valued.
- Build up respect: This is another reason that negotiation occurs as employees wants their respects and importance in the firm so that they can feel highly motivated and valuable person as well. It play vital role in increasing work productivities and get efforts from employees while performing any tasks or activities. It also affects on the impression as well as reputation, therefore M&S has considered this for building brand image in the market.
- Different behaviours or mindset: The main reason of negotiation also can be different nature as well as mindset of people who are working within the same organisation. Employers and employees have their own mindset who come for an mutual agreement or dealing with contract so negotiation process begin. It also can be responsible due to different point of views of people (Zaby, 2015). For example: the manager and his PA have argued regarding pay scale which has increased 5 to 6 % with their mutual understanding as well as agreement according to situations.
Negotiation procedure play an important role in resolving problems or disputes and also settle down the matter in more efficient way. In this consider the salary issues, conflicts or barriers, task allocation and office timing and many more within the firm. Therefore, these following situations are required various elements for utilising in an effective manner that called negotiation.
M1 Concise rationale for the negotiation process and information required in preparation
Negotiation process includes several process or steps that must be considered while making favourable decisions and ensure benefits for both as employee and employers. It is required to analyse needs or wants of parties for formulating the negotiation process. In the above case study, manager and PA negotiate or discuss about salary increment in the M&S firm. In the salary negotiation is considered as the point of views of different mindset of employers or employees (Dawson, 2014). Negotiation is a common method which generally use in several organisations for the purpose of negotiating regarding any issues in the firm. There are some steps involved in the negotiation process such as:
- First phase: In this step, parties decide the position for which negotiation are going to starts with bottom line. It is being continuous till lowest point set in which deals has been accepted and also contract can be done.
- The parties comes up with their objectives and aims that must be consider while negotiating with other party.
- The next phase is define the proper planning with describing the sequences of the proposals that must is necessary for providing the space in negotiation process.
- It is an essential that describe the particular goals or objectives which must be required for preparing for meeting. These should be relevant with negotiation like defining about particular needs or importance as well. Therefore, these questions must be involved in the negotiation process.
- There are requires some aspects such as prepared data, facts and figures, comparable costs and many others. Some negative elements have to be avoid regarding aggressiveness, improper communication and many more while negotiating with other party.
- In the next phase, other party set the criteria and offer a proposal that directly related with responses and also parameters set by them for the purpose of achieving competitive advantages and benefits as well (Dierdorff and Rubin, 2012). Many experts give suggestions or solutions about the proposal and allow to get different points in the favour of firm.
- This phase defined that discussion must be on genuine topic as well as mutual agreed by the every individuals who take part in the negotiation process.
- Negotiator keep their points on front of other party and offer the proposal like “I will do this and you will do that for me.” so that understanding and clearness can be create in more efficient manner.
- This process must be going on effectively and they have to avoid the lowest point immediately or efficiently.
D1 Evaluate the step of the negotiation process and present valid solutions
Negotiation process included various steps or phases that have discussed above. In this included several barriers or conflicts that can be arise during the procedure and these are necessary for making better decisions regarding defining problems and try to reach at possible decision which can be beneficial for employee and employers as well (Bachrach, 2012). It is possible to win every argument in well manner by deciding the limitation for coming to the mutual agreements in the process of negotiation. There are some barriers that can be arise during the procedure. Therefore, conflicts must be resolved in the favour of organisation so that individuals requires some negotiation skills which support in facing as well as solving the problems and also achieve long term goals or objectives in an effective manner. It is very beneficial in creating healthier and positive environment in better ways.
Authority to negotiate: Before starting the negotiation process, it is require to be sure that person have authority or rights for making decisions while negotiating with other party.
Aggressive behaviour: This behaviours is related with friendly and polite nature as some of negotiator use various tactics for making feel comfortable and inferior so that they can get what they want. Their main aim or purpose is to come for mutual agreements that can be possible by polite behaviour. Aggressiveness is more dangerous that can create resentment and build poor relationship among people within the organisation.
Salary increment issues: This issue can affects on the organisational productivities and profitability and also impact on individuals performance in the organisation (Healy, 2011). As per case study, manager of M&S and PA negotiate with salary issue that solved by offering some extra benefits to her such as liberal in time schedule and give more responsibilities and rights for working within the firm.
M2 Apply the RFP process, required key documentation and consequences of breach the agreement
A request proposal may be defined as the document that top management or organisational authorities for the purpose of getting better IT solutions and achieve best possible outcomes as well. RPF play an important role in providing specification and advantages to the customers who are looking for and establish particular criteria regarding proposals. It is necessary to resolve the problems or issues in the RPF such as in M&S company, they consider formal RPF so generally companies focus on getting more benefits or integrated solutions who are required the technology mix, potential configurations and vendors (Hendricksen, 2014). There are key documentation that must be needed for the RFP such as:
Define up the needs: It is an important aspect of the RPF which describe the proper requirements and communication so that entire vendors can be communicated. It is the time consuming process as it takes more time for submitting the proposal and also reviewed of those.
Communication strategies: This is another best method for RFP that support in describing the distribution as well as communications strategies. This is an essential for passing information and create awareness regarding business activities and decisions to the people so that communication process should be more effective. There are some important elements finalists, notified and selected vendors.
Evaluation criteria: In this documentation, RPF identify the particular areas for evaluation about the proposals. In this included various data that must be shared with every and each vendors.
D2 Evaluation the competitive tendering and contract process with recommendation
Competitive tendering is generally use for the government agencies as well as private sector organisations. It is very beneficial for forcing the suppliers to compete as well as consequently so that better outcomes can be get by the buyers or taxpayers as well (Horton, 2016). Therefore, competitive tendering involves the activities for purchasing the advertisements and get succeed in more appropriate manner.
Contract process is an essential for making the contract by considering several laws and legal legislation. Here are some contractual process such as:
Stage 1: Initial discussion and checks
It is the first phase of the contractual process as this generally conducts for preliminary and important discussion among a representative as well as authorised person of the contractor. In this stage, representative take responsibilities for checking the securities and many more. Therefore, they discuss about the security and examine it for effective contract. It also support in defined the several implication regarding security.
Stage 2: Security requirements
This is next phase as in this, contractors check the backgrounds and many more that already conducted in the first stage and also it define various circumstances which can be change very fast and rapidly (Kamin, 2013). In this consider the organisational securities and informations which are provided by the contractors and also undertakes some legal or contractual threats on the ground of security control.
Stage 3: Security oversights and assurances
At this stage, the contractual authorities has been granted for the purpose of contract assurances and oversights securities. In this consider some major field or areas such as physical, documentation, nelson securities control and Information Technology.
Stage 4: In-contract monitoring
It is the last stage of the contractual agreements as in this, all securities regarding oversights are to be monitored and checked. It helps in communicating the entire authorities regarding changes in the domain.
Competitive tendering is must be require ins the every firm as it support in achieving better outcomes or results within the firm. M&S can consider this for getting success in well manner (Negrón, 2014). In this defined the contractual process which is also beneficial for the firm because it will help in making legal contract or agreements in an efficient manner.
(Covered in PPT)
M3 Examine the pitch process within an organisation
Pitch is defined as the business process which support in reducing the internal costs or expenses in an appropriate manner. It is an essential for increasing the brand value among the competitors and generate profits withisn the organisation. M&S is going to launch new products in the cloth and accessories so it is necessary to create awareness among the targeted audiences and also communicate with the senior authorities regarding new product development. In this require effective and efficient pitch process in which included various stages such as:
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