Enhancement in information and technology gives birth to hybrid and remote sharing data and information. Cloud computing is the paradigm of information technology that enable ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources. Cloud computing aid in enhancing the sharing of files and data effectively and efficiently. Albeit of its efficacy, there are various threats, issues and challenges which are associated with the cloud computing. In this context, the motive of preparing research project is to analyse the security threats which are related with the cloud computing and to identify the preventive methods in order to eliminate the threats. With the evolution of technologies, cloud computing is one of the most trending and essential technology which has been used by many medium to small scale IT and banking organisations in order to transmit data and information to another person or organisation. Though in order to acquire the important data, cyber criminals have developed numerous type of worms, malware, viruses which hacks the system and criminals obtain the password. Data breach, Hijacked accounts, malicious insiders are some threats that affects the cloud computing. In order to analyse these threats and identify the preventive measure, the researcher will prepare the research project.
Overview of topic
Cloud computing is the delivery of the computing services such as servers, database, software, analytics, storage and more with the help of internet. From tiny start-ups to global corporations, government agencies to non profit organisation are using cloud computing in order to enhance their productivity and profitability (Islam, Manivannan and Zeadally, 2016). With the raise in technological development and funding, each and every organisation have implemented integrated information technological system and structure. Through this, the management were able to transfer vital files, database and information to other client organisation or subsidiaries effectively and efficiently. With easy access to information and infinite availability of materials available on internet regarding hacking and data breaching, cyber crime has been sustainably increases. In Australia the cyber security threats has been doubled in year 2016 (Almorsy, Grundy and Müller, 2016). This implied that more preventive measures are required in order to enhance the security of the cloud computing. Cloud computing helps in enabling the business to exchange vital information and data efficiently. Despite of security threats and issues, cloud computing has provided ample of benefits and advantages. Cloud computing obliterates the capital expense of purchasing hardware and setting it up in order to transmits the information. Now the management can create their account online and utilise it in order to share information with each other. In comparison with old traditional approach, cloud computing is rapid and fast. With high speed internet connection, one can access to the shared files or data rapidly (Rittinghouse and Ransome, 2016). The benefits of cloud computing services include the ability to scale elastically. Thus, these are some benefits which are associated with cloud computing that helps the business organisation to sustain in the competitive environment by raising their productivity and profitability.
Relevant technologies and applications of those technologies
In recent years cloud computing has attracted both academic and industrial entities. It is visualised as a diversion in computing paradigm in which computing services are delivered and retain on demand over the global scale network. According to Krutz and Vines (2010) cloud computing posses immense potential to transform Information and Technological industries and changes the manner in which Enterprise IT operates. In the advance technological era, cloud computing is considered as one of the best and efficient source to transfer important data, files and folders from one person to many. However, in light of this statement Shaikh and Haider (2011) argued that cloud services and security concerns inherited from their underlying technologies might negatively impact on an enterprise if they are not properly management. Subashini and Kavitha (2011) elaborated the three main types of cloud service infrastructure which are (IaaS), (PaaS) and (Saas). These service infrastructure differs from one another and are used by the enterprise to fulfil their precise purpose. The cloud computing are growing rapidly and new services are emerging seemingly daily. It not only helps the enterprises by reducing their efforts but also aid in saving both their cost and time. According to Catteddu (2010) though organisations has implemented various security measures within their systems, there are still many loopholes through which hackers and cyber criminals hijacked their account and acquire the vital and essential information of the organisation. As per the report of Cloud Security Alliance, there are numerous threats to cloud computing which the management of enterprises needs to look after (PopoviÄ‡ and Hocenski, 2010). Data Breaches is one of the most common threat an enterprise faced (Wilson, 2016). Data breach is the theft of vital, confidential or sensitive data of an enterprise. In May 2014, eBay database got compromised by a team of hackers who have stolen the names, address and other credentials of 145 million users. This was one of the biggest data breach in history. The management identified that the hackers have hacked the database by using names and credentials of three employees working in the organisation. Sabahi (2011) argued that weak identity, credentials and access management allows cyber criminals to hijacked the database of the organisation. In 2012, famous cloud service provider Dropbox faced data breach where the management conformed that 68 million users data got compromised. Hackers acquired email address and passwords of the users and got access to 5 gigabytes of data (7 Most Infamous Cloud Security Breaches, 2017). Zissis and Lekkas (2012) elucidated that an insider threat is a malicious threat to an organisation which comes from people within the organisation. Insider threats are deliberate attempts by any employee of organisation to harm the systems and IT infrastructure with the motive to sell the vital information of the company (Takabi, Joshi and Ahn, 2010). The security threat is unable to detect and in order to prevent it, the management of the organisations needs to restrict access to IT systems to limited personnel only.
Ross disembarked the ship and slowly, and clumsily, made his way to the ambulance. Once there, he refused to let the paramedics examine him, aggressively asking that they transport him as quickly as possible to get this ‘whole thing over with’. Chandler apologised to the paramedics stating that this behaviour was quite out of character. En route to the hospital, the paramedics asked several times whether Ross would allow them to take a set of observations, but he refused.
Arriving at the Emergency Department, the paramedics provided the triage nurse with a summary of Ross’ condition, but did not pass on the information about the medications as they were unaware that Ross had ingested the tablets. Ross was uncooperative, refusing to allow the nursing staff to complete a set of observations. Ross was quickly able to see a doctor but made it very clear that he was only there under the orders of his Captain, and wished to return to the ship. Given his lack of cooperation, there was little that any of the health care practitioners at the Cairns Base Hospital could do to assist Ross and he walked out of the department without being examined.
Ross returned to the ship and reported to Chandler that he had seen the doctor, and that there was nothing more they could do but ‘give it some time’. Chandler’s understanding was that Ross would eventually improve with the medication he had been prescribed. He was not concerned when Ross retired to his cabin. Once there, Ross he began to feel nauseous and the pain escalated. In an effort to relieve it, Ross took four more oxycodone tablets.
While having a mild effect on the pain, the oxycodone exacerbated the nausea and began to make Ross feel disorientated. Feeling as though he needed to vomit, he made his way up onto the deck. In his disorientated state, he did not notice that he had stepped beneath a crane that was unloading cargo onto the ship’s deck. As he lurched to vomit over the edge, the crane released its cargo, which landed directly on top of Ross. One of the crew saw Ross trapped under the cargo and immediately raised the alarm and all efforts were made to retrieve the cargo that was crushing Ross.
Upon arrival, the paramedics assessed Ross as having severe traumatic brain injury with bleeding and bruising, suspected facial and skull fractures, fractured ribs and a pneumothorax. As Ross was minimally responsive and bleeding profusely, they immediately intubated him, attempted to arrest the bleeding, and transported him back to Cairns Base Hospital. CT scans confirmed multiple skull and facial fractures, a large subarachnoid haemorrhage and a left pneumothorax, and Ross was admitted to the intensive care unit. In the meantime, Chandler contacted Rachel. Rachel and Joey made urgent plans to fly from Bundaberg to Cairns with the children. However, as there were no direct flights, the family were not there when Ross was wheeled to surgery to fix the facial fractures and evacuate the haematoma.
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Unfortunately, after several weeks, Ross’ progress was poor, and the chances of a full recovery became increasingly slim. A tracheostomy tube was inserted, but despite several attempts, he could not be weaned from the ventilator. Ross no longer moved spontaneously, or responded to any of his family. As weeks turned into months, Rachel began to accept that Ross might not return to his former self.
The healthcare team caring for Ross formed the opinion that he was in a minimally conscious state. They believed that because of the extensive traumatic brain injury Ross had no awareness of his surroundings, and as long as he remained unable to breathe on his own there was no possibility of recovery. Rachel agreed with the assessment made by the healthcare team, believing that Ross displayed no sign of recognising anyone, or even that people were there with him at all. She described Ross’s condition, saying that, ‘initially you could think that he might notice you were there, but it was really like he was asleep on the inside and just startling at noise or contact’. Rachel insisted that she and Ross had discussed how they would want to be treated if they were ever to be involved in a significant accident. Ross had been adamant that he would not want to be left in a situation where he could not care for himself, would be a cause of distress to his family, and would be unable to provide for the people he loved the most. Rachel said Ross had said ‘if that ever happens, please just turn the bloody machines off’.
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Feeling responsible for Ross’ current situation, Chandler had stayed by Ross’ bedside. Chandler’s perception of Ross’ situation was quite different. He did not agree that Ross had no awareness of his surroundings, and thought that from time to time he would try to turn his head when he heard the children’s voices – not always, but sometimes. He had undertaken some research and found several cases in which people had ‘woken up’ after being in comas for prolonged periods, and several more in which people had substantially recovered from traumatic brain injury. Chandler discussed this with Joey and although they also knew that Ross would not want to remain reliant on others’ care in the long term they were hopeful that given time and encouragement, Ross would be able to communicate with his family, if not return to his prior self entirely.